This Role 1 prolonged field care (PFC) guideline is intended to be used after Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) Guidelines when evacuation to higher level of care is not immediately possible. A provider of PFC must first and foremost be an expert in TCCC. This CPG is meant to provide medical professionals who encounter crush syndrome in austere environments with evidence-based guidance for how to manage the various aspects of crush injury care and monitoring. Recommendations follow a “minimum,” “better,” “best” format that provides alternate or improvised methods when optimal hospital options are unavailable.
Crush syndrome is a life and limb-threatening condition that can occur as a result of entrapment of the extremities accompanied by extensive damage of a large muscle mass. It can develop following as little as 1 hour of entrapment. Effective medical care is required to reduce the risk of kidney damage, cardiac arrhythmia, and death.
Crush syndrome is a reperfusion injury that leads to traumatic rhabdomyolysis. Reperfusion results in the release of muscle cell components, including myoglobin and potassium, that can be lethal. Myoglobin release results in rhabdomyolysis, with risk of kidney damage. Kidney damage leads to hyperkalemia and eventually cardiac arrhythmias. Calcium is taken up by injured muscle cells and this can cause hypocalcemia, contributing to cardiac arrhythmias. The risks are increased with large areas of tissue crushed (one or both lower extremities) and the length of time the casualty is pinned prior to extrication.
The primary treatment is aggressive fluid administration. Reperfusion after prolonged tourniquet application (>2 hours), extremity compartment syndrome, and severe limb trauma involving blunt trauma can also result in rhabdomyolysis by the same mechanisms as crush syndrome, and the treatment is the same.
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The principles of hypotensive resuscitation according to TCCC DO NOT apply in the setting of extremity crush injury requiring extrication.
Goal: Correct hypovolemia to prevent myoglobin injury to the kidneys and dilute toxic concentrations of potassium to reduce risk of kidney damage and lethal arrhythmias.
Life-threatening hyponatremia can result from large-volume administration of plain water. If using oral or rectal fluids because of unavailability of IV fluids or access, they must be in the form of a premixed or improvised electrolyte solution to reduce this risk.6
Examples of mixed or improvised electrolyte solutions include the following:
Goal: Maintain high UOP, detect cardiotoxicity, ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation, avoid hypotension, trend response to resuscitation. Document blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), fluid input, urine output (UOP), mental status, pain, pulse oximetry, and temperature on a flowsheet.
Goal: UOP of 100–200mL/h. The fluid rate should be adjusted to maintain this level of UOP.
If UOP is below goal at IV fluid rate of 1L/h for >2 hours, kidneys may be damaged and unable to respond to fluid resuscitation. Consider:
Goal: Monitor for worsening condition
Release of potassium from tissue damage and kidney damage can result in hyperkalemia (>5.5mEq/L), resulting in life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias or heart failure14–17
Goal: Monitor for life-threatening hyperkalemia
Treatments for Cardiac Arrhythmias Due to Hyperkalemia
Treat if potassium level is >5.5mEq/L or there are cardiac arrhythmias (see above). Note that a normal ECG may occur in patients with hyperkalemia.
Goal: Restore normal ECG/prevent fatal cardiac complications
Treatment for Hyperkalemia
Sodium polystyrene sulfonate removes potassium from the body. All other treatments temporarily lower potassium by shifting it out of circulation and into the cells. Continue to monitor and repeat treatment when needed.
Tourniquets may delay the life-threatening complications of a reperfusion injury if immediate fluid resuscitation or monitoring is not initially available. Consider tourniquet placement for crush injury before extrication if the length of entrapment exceeds 2 hours and crush injury protocol cannot be initiated immediately.22–24
Goal: Delay acute toxicity until after fluid resuscitation and monitoring are available.
A limb that is cool, insensate, tensely swollen, and pulseless is likely dead. Patient may develop shock and kidney damage, and may die. Consider fasciotomy. If no improvement, place two tourniquets side by side and proximal to the injury and do not remove. Amputation anticipated.
Extremity compartment syndrome must be anticipated with crush injury and reperfusion injury.25–27
Goal: Decompress muscle, restore blood flow.
For infection due to associated wounds and not crush injury itself, follow the Joint Theater Trauma System Infection Control Guidelines: “Prevent Infection in Combat-Related Injuries for Extremity Wounds.”29
Goal: Prevent infection.
Two appendices accompany this article: Appendix A presents a summary of fluid and equipment planning considerations; Appendix B summarizes monitoring and management considerations relative to time.
The purpose of this Appendix is to ensure an understanding of DoD policy and practice regarding inclusion in CPGs of “off-label” uses of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved products. This applies to off-label uses with patients who are armed forces members.
Unapproved (i.e. “off-label”) uses of FDA-approved products are extremely common in American medicine and are usually not subject to any special regulations. However, under Federal law, in some circumstances, unapproved uses of approved drugs are subject to FDA regulations governing “investigational new drugs.” These circumstances include such uses as part of clinical trials, and in the military context, command required, unapproved uses. Some command requested unapproved uses may also be subject to special regulations.
Additional Information Regarding Off-Label Uses in CPGs
The inclusion in CPGs of off-label uses is not a clinical trial, nor is it a command request or requirement. Further, it does not imply that the Military Health System requires that use by DoD health care practitioners or considers it to be the “standard of care.” Rather, the inclusion in CPGs of off-label uses is to inform the clinical judgment of the responsible health care practitioner by providing information regarding potential risks and benefits of treatment alternatives. The decision is for the clinical judgment of the responsible health care practitioner within the practitioner-patient relationship.
Consistent with this purpose, CPG discussions of off-label uses specifically state that they are uses not approved by the FDA. Further, such discussions are balanced in the presentation of appropriate clinical study data, including any such data that suggest caution in the use of the product and specifically including any FDA-issued warnings.
With respect to such off-label uses, DoD procedure is to maintain a regular system of quality assurance monitoring of outcomes and known potential adverse events. For this reason, the importance of accurate clinical records is underscored.
Good clinical practice includes the provision of appropriate information to patients. Each CPG discussing an unusual off-label use will address the issue of information to patients. When practicable, consideration will be given to including in an appendix an appropriate information sheet for distribution to patients, whether before or after use of the product. Information to patients should address in plain language: a) that the use is not approved by the FDA; b) the reasons why a DoD health care practitioner would decide to use the product for this purpose; and c) the potential risks associated with such use.